Хурджин. Сумка хурджин


Хурджин от арт-кафе Esebua - Журнал SD (Smart Diamond) Пенза

Хурджин

Алина Есебуа, вдохновленная после поездки на Кавказ дивными красотами природы и местной культурой, провела для журнала SD урок истории вкуса и традиций кавказского народа, поделившись рецептом нового фирменного блюда ресторана Esebua.

История блюда хурджин начинается много веков назад. Само слово «хурджин» в переводе означает сумку, сотканную ковровой техникой из разноцветных шерстяных волокон. Хурджины имеют разные формы и размеры, могут состоять из двух частей, которые перекидываются через плечо. В древние времена хурджин использовали для переноски разнообразных вещей и перекидывали через спину осла или верблюда. Пастухи клали в него завтрак, торговцы перевозили товар, а богатые люди хранили в нем золото и драгоценности. Использовалась в быту эта сумка кавказским и восточным народом.

На Новый год мы с семьей ездили на Кавказ, где посещали различные места. Однажды в одну из таких увлекательных прогулок я зашла в старинную лавку, где продавались изделия ручной работы, украшения, статуэтки. Среди этого красочного многообразия сувениров я заметила сумки и шапки из коврового текстиля, разнообразие форм и богатство цветовой гаммы которых не может оставить равнодушным ни одного кавказского человека. Конечно, я не могла не приобрести и себе такую колоритную вещь. Как оказалось, эта яркая и красивая сумка и есть хурджин.

А историю самого блюда я узнала чуть позже, ее мне рассказал профессиональный повар из Армении, как оказалось, блюдо «хурджин» появилось благодаря одной из таких интересных и незаменимых в те времена сумок. Все началось с того, что сумочку-мешочек из армянского лаваша начиняли обжаренной мякотью баранины с овощами, завязывали его и запекали в печи. Данное блюдо пользовалось популярностью среди тех, кто работал с раннего утра и до позднего вечера, среди пастухов и даже странников и торговцев, которые уходили в дальнюю дорогу. Разогревали хурджин на костре, либо в печи.

С тех пор, как я узнала про хурджин, я стала готовить его и для своей семьи. Особенно это нравится моей дочке, которая с радостью помогает мне заворачивать разнообразные начинки в сумочку-мешочек. Моя семья любит хурджин с мякотью баранины и овощами, для его приготовления требуется армянский лаваш, мякоть баранины, репчатый лук, помидор, болгарский перец, сметана и мука. Курдюк обжаривают, затем добавляют обжаренные овощи, специи и муку. Полученную однородную массу надо завернуть в лаваш и запекать в печи либо в духовке при температуре 230°С в течение 7-10 минут.

Изучив несколько рецептов и видя радостную реакцию своих близких, я стала приглашать на ужины своих друзей и удивлять их собственноручно приготовленными хурджинами. Несмотря на многообразие видов данного блюда, мне особенно нравится хурджин с домашним сулугуни и свежей зеленью.

Постепенно из моего фирменного домашнего блюда хурджин превратился в фирменное блюдо ресторана Esebua. Несмотря на то, что это новинка, я уверена, что оно понравится абсолютно всем. Кроме того, оно прекрасно подходит и для маленьких компаний, и для крупных торжеств. Его можно подать и на дни рождения, и на семейный ужин, потому что это не только красивое, но и очень сытное блюдо.

Изюминка хурджина заключается и в оригинальной подаче лаваша с разнообразной начинкой, и в многообразии начинки, которую наш ресторан решил расширить. Выбор начинки остается за нашими гостями. В нашем ресторане Esebua есть хурджин с мякотью баранины, с мякотью баранины и овощами, с внутренностями баранины, с мякотью говядины, с сыром сулугуни и зеленью. А ароматные специи для хурджина не смогут оставить равнодушным ни одного человека.

Буду очень рада, если это блюдо поймут и оценят жители и гости нашего города. Тем более хурджина нет еще ни в одном заведении Пензы, приходите и пробуйте, а мы постараемся сохранить вкус, традиции и историю хурджина. Приятного аппетита!

penza.sd-magazine.ru

Новый Год в Грузии | Лучшая цена тура!

                

   

  ПРЕДЛАГАЕМ ВАМ 2 ТУРА НА НОВЫЙ 2018 ГОД В ГРУЗИИ ПО ЛУЧШИМ ЦЕНАМ!

Мы находимся в Грузии и сами организовываем туры, поэтому у нас и дешевле.

 

                                        Тур №1                                                                          Тур №2

Тур на Новый Год в Грузию грузия новый год

 

В Грузии Новый Год отмечают дважды по старому и новому календарю, 31 декабря и 14 января. Кроме этого, в каждом уголке Грузии Новый Год встречают по разному. У всех свои традиции, ритуалы, а также разное меню новогоднего стола.

Празднество Нового Года в Грузии состоит из различных ритуалов, каждый по-своему отличается друг от друга, но основная их цель – душевно отметить новогодний праздник. Сам праздник – Новый Год отмечается, как и у других народов, с целью внести в каждый дом, каждому человеку – здоровье, достаток, счастье в семью, радость и добро, «хвави» и «барака».

В Грузии Дед Мороз так же ассоциируется с одной старинной традицией, это выбор человека, который первый входит в другой дом на Новый Год – это «мэквлэ», дословно можно перевести, как «первопроходец в дом». Данная роль отводится уважаемому и почитаемому человеку.

Грузинский дед мороз 1

 

Грузинский Дед Мороз – это добродушный старик, с большой, длинной бородой и усами, одетый в белую одежду из сукна - «чохе», которая была очень распространена в прошлом у многих народов Кавказа. Старичок несёт разноцветную сумку «хурджин», сделанную по технологии изготовления ковров. Сумка состоит из двух отделений и может иметь разные размеры, так же она украшена звонкими бубенчиками, чтобы прибытие Деда Мороза было хорошо слышно. Бубенчики и колокольчики у многих народов ассоциируются с праздниками и хорошим настроением.

В восточной Грузии основным блюдом новогоднего стола является «сациви» из индейки, то что касается сладостей кроме всем известных чурчхел на столе обязательно должно быть «гозинахи» (по русский – это козинаки, орешки в медово-сахарном сиропе).

В Западной Грузии новогодний стол ассоциируется с «чичилаки» – это Новогодний символ, и незаменимое украшение. Данный предмет изготавливают из ветки орешника, её аккуратно обстругивают, при этом оставляя пышную корону из стружек на другом конце палки. В результате получается такая струганая палка с замечательной, пышной шапкой из закрученных стружек. В целом размер украшения не имеет стандартов, но в среднем высота «чичилаки» составляет около 50-70 см, то есть, немногим более полуметра. Вокруг «чичилаки» расставляют тарелки с различными угощениями, сладостями и сухофруктами. В конце праздника, «чичилаки» сжигают, и пепел разбрасывают по ветру, вместе с этим дом и семью покидает все плохое из прошлого года.Грузинский дед мороз сидит

В Хевсурети и Тушети Новый Год называют «целицади» Специально на этот праздник в деревнях готовят новогоднюю водку и варят домашнее пиво. Домохозяйка печёт новогодние «квэри» («квэри» - колобок, лепёшка). Далее квэри вместе с солью, с топленным маслом и шерстью овцы складывают на хончу - продолговатая деревянная тарелка. После этого ждут «мэквле» который по традиции должен прийти и пожелать дому и всей семье разных благ, здоровья и достатка.

В Пшави 31 декабря большинство мужчин уходит молиться в Хати – это место, священный молитвенный дом грузинских горцев, там позволено возносить молитвы только мужчинам.

 01 января  в доме ждут тех мужчин, которые уходили молиться, до этого момента ни кто не покидает дом. Кульминация данных ритуалов – хозяйка дома вешает варочный котёл и начинает готовить традиционный, знаменитый грузинский хинкали.Грузинский дед мороз за столом

В Гурии и Самегрело Новый Год называют КАЛАНДА и встречают его выстрелами из ружья. С в первыми лучами восхода солнца поёт петух, и глава семьи входит в марании, берет стакан вина и просит у святого Василия радости и счастья для своей семьи. Почему Василия? Издавна Грузинский Новый Год имел другое название – «День Василия» на грузинском - «ბასილის დღე («басилис д’гэ»), так как 1 января православная церковь поминала Святого Василия Великого, (приблизительно 330-379 гг.) святителя, архиепископа Кесарии Каппадокийской, церковного писателя и богослова. По-старому стилю, старый Новый Год и «День Василия» отмечается, обычно 14 января. Поэтому, в Грузии на Новый Год специально пекут лепёшки человекоподобной формы, которых так и называют – «Лепёшки Василия», на грузинском – «ბასილას კვერები» («басилас квэрэби»).

В Сванетии например есть такой ритуал в «гидэли» - (специально сплетённая корзина, чаще всего используется в Грузии при сборке винограда и фруктов) складывают все блюда и вешают на входную дверь. Это для мэквле, который войдёт вскоре в дом и обойдет всех его жильцов с новогодними поздравлениями!

В Грузии принято готовить очень много сладостей на Новый год, и все друг друга угощают, ходят в гости друг другу со сладостями. Это ассоциируется с тем, чтоб следующий год был удачным, и в жизни было все сладко.

Фото, грузинский Дед Мороз, грузинское украшение «чичилаки»:

Грузинские чичилакиГрузинские чичилаки много

  

 

georgian-a.com

Хурджин - WikiVisually

1. Азербайджан – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. It is bound by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bound by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic state in the Muslim orient world. The country was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, the modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic, the country is a member state of the Council of Europe, the OSCE and the NATO Partnership for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, a member of the Turkic Council. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations and it is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006, Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, holds observer status in World Trade Organization and is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all political forces in the country are secularist. However, the majority of the population are of a Shiite Muslim background, Azerbaijan has a high level of human development which ranks on par with most Eastern European countries. It has a rate of economic development and literacy, as well as a low rate of unemployment. According to the Davos World Economic Forum, Azerbaijans economy has scored 37th place within 138 countries in 2016, Global Competitiveness Index 2015 indicates that Azerbaijan scores highest in its region. ASAN services, established with Presidential Decree, are known for eliminating bribery. ASAN Service has been awarded with United Nations Public Service Award 2015, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses. The original etymology of name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta, Frawardin Yasht, there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, the name Atropates itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian, probably Median, compounded name with the meaning Protected by the Fire or The Land of the Fire

2. Армения – Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք. The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is also postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk

3. Кавказ – The Caucasus /ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, which contain Europes highest mountain, politically, the Caucasus region is separated between northern and southern parts. The southern parts consist of independent sovereign states, and the parts are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The region is known for its diversity, aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian. Pliny the Elders Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis, German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis also means ice. According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the South Caucasus region and southern Dagestan were the furthest points of Persian expansions, with areas to the north of Caucasus Mountains practically impregnable. The mythological mountain of Qaf, the worlds highest mountain that ancient lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region, therefore, the Caucasus might be associated with the legendary mountain. The Ciscaucasus contains the majority of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range. It includes Southwestern Russia and northern parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan, the Transcaucasus is bordered on the north by Russia, on the west by the Black Sea and Turkey, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the south by Iran. It includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands, all of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia are in South Caucasus. The main Greater Caucasus range is generally perceived to be the line between Asia and Europe. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, the Caucasus is one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Armenia, three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful or by no independent states, Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognised by the majority of independent states as part of Georgia, the Russian divisions include Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, and the autonomous republics of Adygea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Ingushetia, Chechnya, and Dagestan. The region has many different languages and language families, there are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. Russian is used as a common language, today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, or Sunni Muslims. Shia Islam has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the part of the region. Located on the peripheries of Turkey, Iran, and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world

4. Викисклад – Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, sound, and other media files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation, the repository contains over 38 million media files. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000, the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7,2004. The expression educational is to be according to its broad meaning of providing knowledge. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, for this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts freely licensed media and deletes copyright violations. The default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have also translated into various languages. Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWikis category system, in addition, they are often collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to also contain free text files. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as littered with dicks, in 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as lolicon. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as Commonist have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. In order to free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users can participate in a defunct collaborative external review process. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works, one is known as Featured pictures, where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination. This process began in November 2004, another process known as Quality images began in June 2006, and has a simpler nomination process comparable to Featured pictures. Quality images only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas Featured pictures additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA, the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files. However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental, files with specific defects can be tagged for improvement and warning or even proposed for deletion but there exists no process of systematic rating of all files. The site held its inaugural Picture of the Year competition, for 2006, all images that were made a Featured picture during 2006 were eligible, and voted on by eligible Wikimedia users during two rounds of voting

5. Сумка – A handbag, also purse or pouch in North American English, is a handled medium-to-large bag that is often fashionably designed, often used by women, to hold personal items. The term purse originally referred to a bag for holding coins. In British English, it is used to refer to a small coin bag. A handbag is an accessory that holds objects beyond currency. American English typically uses the terms purse and handbag interchangeably, the term handbag began appearing in the early 1900s. Initially, it was most often used to refer to mens hand-luggage, womens bags grew larger and more complex during this period, and the term was attached to the accessory. Handbags are valued for their stylishness as visual accessories as well as for their function, the verb to handbag derives from UK prime minister Margaret Thatchers habit of pulling scraps of paper out of her handbag in meetings and reading aloud the comments she had written on them. The verbs more general meaning of treating ruthlessly came to symbolise Thatchers whole style of government, julian Critchley, one of her biggest Tory backbench critics, once said, Margaret Thatcher and her handbag is the same as Winston Churchill and his cigar. Early modern Europeans wore purses for one purpose, to carry coins. Purses were made of fabric or leather and were worn by men as often as ladies. In the 17th century, young girls were taught embroidery as a skill for marriage. By the late 18th century, fashions in Europe were moving towards a slender shape for these accessories, inspired by the silhouettes of Ancient Greece, women wanted purses that would not be bulky or untidy in appearance, so reticules were designed. Reticules were made of fine fabrics like silk and velvet, carried with wrist straps, first becoming popular in France, they crossed over into Britain, where they became known as indispensables. Men, however, did not adopt the trend and they used purses and pockets, which became popular in mens trousers. The modern purse, clutch, pouch or handbag came about in England during the Industrial Revolution, H. J. Cave obliged and produced the first modern set of luxury handbags, as we would recognize them today, including a clutch and a tote. These are now on display in the Museum of Bags and Purses in Amsterdam. H. J. Cave did continue to sell and advertise the handbags, but many critics said that women did not need them, H. J. However, H. J. Cave resumed handbag production in 2010. During the 1940s, the rationing of textiles for World War II led to the manufacturing of handbags made in materials like raffia or crocheted from yarn, some women crocheted their own small handbags from commercial patterns during this period

6. Авоська – A string bag is an open netted bag. It is one type of reusable shopping bags, as well as a type of packaging. Bags of net-like material have been used by cultures in history. For example, Japanese divers have used string bags to collect items to bring to the surface, rousek company, began to produce string bags under the trademark Saarense at the local chateau Ždár. They formerly made hair nets, which had become due to shorter hairstyles coming into fashion. This led to years of prosperity for the company, the hand made shopping bags were made of artificial silk yarn, woven by women working at home or by using child labour, the finished bags were then given to Vavřín Krčil. The bags quickly became popular due to their low price, light weight. Krčil soon extended the range of designs, including bags to be carried at the elbow or on the shoulder, in the late 1920s string bags were being produced in Switzerland and Italy, and were distributed around the world. Krčil himself exported the bags to Canada, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the classic East German Einkaufsnetz has leather handles and multicoloured netting made from Eisengarn, a strong, starched and waxed cotton thread. Due to shortages of many types of raw materials in the GDR, recycling and reusing were the norm, the bags took up very little space when not in use and therefore could be carried around in case you serendipitiously came across something useful for sale. In West Germany use of net shopping bags declined from the early 1980s due to plastic bags becoming common in shops and supermarkets. In the 1960s and 1970s net bags were made out of Dederon. The oil crisis of the mid-1970s meant that GDR could no longer produce Dederon in such large quantities, the DDR Museum in Berlin has a collection of Einskaufsnetz, and the bags are now often sold as DDR kult Klassiker. String bags were popular in Russia and other former USSR republics where they were called avoska, the avoska was a major cultural phenomenon of Soviet daily life. They were manufactured using various kinds of strings, with the advent of synthetic materials, some of them were made of stretchable string, so that a very small net could be stretched to a very large sack. With the popularization of plastic bags avoskas gradually went into disuse, the name avoska derives from the Russian adverb avos, an expression of vague expectation of luck, translated in various contexts as perhaps, hopefully, etc. The exact origin of the term remains uncertain, with several different attributions, in 1970 a popular Soviet comedian, Arkady Raikin, explained that around 1935 he introduced a character, a simple man with a netted sack in his hands. He used to demonstrate the sack to the spectators and to say А это авоська, Авось-ка я что-нибудь в ней принесу

7. Бандольер – A bandolier or a bandoleer is a pocketed belt for holding ammunition. It was usually slung sash-style over the shoulder, with the ammunition pockets across the midriff and it might also carry grenades or other accessories for shooting. Any bag worn in the style may also be described as a bandolier bag, similarly. A somewhat different form of the bandolier came into use in the 19th century, bandoliers are now less common due to the use of magazines and belt-fed firearms, though extra ammunition belts are often carried around the body like a bandolier. They are, however, still used with shotguns, as shotgun shells can easily be stored in traditionally-designed bandoliers. In fact, some aftermarket shotgun slings are designed in a similar to traditional bandoliers. Another modern use of a bandolier is for the automatic rifleman of a military fireteam, since a squad automatic weapon is often belt-fed, an automatic rifleman will carry an extra belt on his person, either in a separate compartment or slung over the chest in bandolier fashion. The bandolier was used to keep ammunition off a soldiers hips, as carrying too much weight on the hips can constrain movement, in World War I and World War II, bandoliers were issued primarily to riflemen. They were made of cloth, stitched into pockets which held clips of rifle ammunition, today, bandoliers are commonly used to carry multiple grenade rounds. In civilian use, bandoliers are often worn by hunters and recreational shooters using shotguns, bandoliers made from spent or dummy rounds are often used in fashion, sometimes in heavy metal and punk subcultures. Today, bandoliers see widespread use with sport shooters and hunters alike, as well as limited use in military conflicts

8. Билум – A bilum is a string bag made by hand in Papua New Guinea. The bag can be made by a known as looping or knotless netting or by crocheting. Traditionally, the string used was handmade, normally from plant materials, now, however, many people who can afford to do so make their bilums from store bought yarn and string. Bilums are used to carry a range of items, from shopping goods in large bilums to personal items in purse-sized varieties. Mothers often carry their babies in bilums and they come in different patterns, each pattern resembling certain tribe or clan. More complex and specific patterns are made for carrying during public appearances or displayed during the ceremonial events, the special ceremonial events include yam festivals, tambuan dances, bride price payment, dead compensation and barter system between the river people and the inland wosera people. The complex patterns are of inheritance and only very few ladies in a village possess those inherited talents, the Wosera people are the only tribe that maintains the originalities of the bilum patterns and treasures the complexity of their inherited patterns and it is the only significance of that area. In the highland region they have extended the concept to make bilumwares especially bilum dresses. The bilumware is now becoming common during school graduation dressings, bilumware is now marketable to Papua New Guinea citizens living overseas

9. Биркин (сумка) – The Birkin bag is a personal accessory of luggage or a tote by Hermès that is handmade in leather and named after actress and singer Jane Birkin. The bag is currently in fashion as a symbol of wealth due to its high price and its prices range from £7,500 to £100,000. Costs escalate according to the type of leather and if exotic skins were used, the bags are distributed to Hermès boutiques on unpredictable schedules and in limited quantities, creating artificial scarcity and exclusivity. Small versions may be considered a handbag or purse, in 1983, Hermès chief executive Jean-Louis Dumas was seated next to Jane Birkin on a flight from Paris to London. She had just placed her straw travelling bag in the compartment for her seat. Birkin explained to Dumas that it had been difficult to find a leather bag she liked. In 1984, he created a black supple leather bag for her, based on a 1982 design. She used the bag initially, but changed her mind because she was carrying too many things in it, “What’s the use of having a second one. ”“You only need one, i’m going to have to have an operation for tendonitis in the shoulder. Nevertheless, since that time, the bag has become a status symbol, a significantly lower cost was reported for the rubber totes, being comparable to typical leather handbags. Birkin bags are sold in a range of sizes, each one may be made to order with different customer-chosen hides, colour, and hardware fixtures. There are other options, such as diamond-encrusting. The bag also comes in a variety of such as calf leather, lizard. Among the most expensive used to be saltwater crocodile skin and bags with smaller scales cost more than those with larger scales, in 2015, however, Jane Birkin asked Hermès to stop using her name for the crocodile version due to ethical concerns. Each bag is lined with goat-skin, the colour of the matching the exterior. Prices for the Birkin bag depend on type of skin, the colour, sizes range from 25-, 30-, 35-, to 40-centimeters, with travelling bags of 50- and 55-centimeters. It also comes in a variety of such as black, brown, golden tan, navy blue, olive green, orange, pink, powder blue, red. * The bag has a lock and keys, the keys are enclosed in a leather lanyard known as a clochette, carried by looping it through a handle. The bag is locked by closing the top flaps over buckle loops, wrapping the buckle straps, early locks only bore one number on the bottom of the lock

10. Вещевой мешок – A duffel bag is a large cylindrical bag made of cloth historically with a top closure. The name comes from Duffel, a town in Belgium where the cloth used to make the bag originated. More recently, a duffel bag typically refers to the style of bag. It is often used as luggage or to sports equipment by people who travel in the outdoors. Duffel bags are often used by military personnel, when used by sailors or marines they are sometimes called seabags. Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit-Bag and Smile, Smile, Smile was a popular WWI marching song, the duffel bag acquired considerable status in the surfer subcultures of post-WWII California and east coast Australia. In the case of California, this grew out of its use in the late 1940s and 1950s by ex-Navy personnel. In Australia its use became popular in the early 1960s, carrying a duffel bag was synonymous to being a surfie. Australian duffel bags of the early 1960s were made of canvas and were usually light khaki or faded ochre in colour and their use had died out by the mid-1960s. Duffel coat Hold-all Hockey bag Duffel Blog, a satirical military website Media related to Duffel bags at Wikimedia Commons

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